Summaries

Every week, the MarXiv Team selects papers shared in the MarXiv repository to summarize for managers and policymakers. Share your research in MarXiv now and we may summarize your paper, too!

Fully protected MPAs can reduce patchiness of target species

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are often used to protect patches of habitat that support species targeted for protection. Ideally, these protected habits should be well-connected so that protected species can flow from one MPA to its neighbors. β-diversity has been proposed as a way to measure this connectivity by examining the distribution of species within a defined area. High β-diversity indicates more species diversity and a more uniform spatial distribution of species, making these areas more resilient. Low β-diversity can indicate that species are distributed in a more “patchy” manner or where communities are dominated by just a few species.

Taking home-ranges into account for Mediterranean MPAs could offer increased recovery benefits

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a common fisheries management tool that relies on the assumption that species protected within a spatially-explicit area are allowed to recover and later “spill over” the boundaries of the MPA where they may be harvested. By fully protecting an MPA, species inside will grow and reproduce a steady supply of “spilled over” fish to be harvested. But how large of an area should you protect at a minimum to offer this benefit?

Summary: Beating the Microbead: How private environmental governance has influenced the regulatory process of banning microbeads in the UK

Previous research suggests that private environmental governance has ambiguous effects in terms of democratic decision-making and transparency. This study advances our understanding of the type and impacts of private governance in the regulatory process of microbeads in the UK, drawing on the qualitative analysis of 3 expert interviews and 56 documents submitted to the government during the parliamentary inquiry phase.

Lessons Learned from Australia’s Stakeholder Engagement Efforts for MPA Planning

Jon Day shares key lessons learned from stakeholder engagement efforts during the Representative Areas Program in the Great Barrier Reef, which was a key part of the comprehensive rezoning of the entire Marine Park between 1999 and 2003. As a result of this planning process, the total area of no-take zones increased from less than 5% to over one-third of the Marine Park, highlighting in large part the importance of effectively engaging stakeholders. Some of this accrued wisdom includes:

Indicators for evaluating the protection of MPA networks

Not all MPAs are created equal, in terms of biodiversity conservation. Many MPAs allow extractive uses like fishing or oil prospecting, while other “no-take” MPAs prohibit such uses. Some MPAs are isolated from other protected sites, while others utilize network effects to increase larval dispersal and survival of protected species. With the current Convention on Biological Diversity target of protecting 10% of marine and coastal areas by 2020, can size alone determine if an MPA is living up to its name? No.

Designing well-connected marine reserves for climate-change resilience with low socio-economic costs

The theory behind networks of marine reserves is that they allow protected pathways for species to grow and maintain populations through their lifecycle - from where individuals begin their lives (typically as planktonic larvae) to where they disperse and live later as adults. Individual reserves - patches of protected habitat - are linked together, often by oceanic currents, with organisms moving between the reserves. Connections between marine reserves in a common area can be explored with graph theory: visualizing ecological networks much like a concept map.

Fine-scale fisheries co-management through cooperative acoustic surveys

The authors describe a method of collaborative fisheries management offering both fine temporal- and spatial-scale resolution which was trialed in Alaska’s Aleutian Islands walleye pollock fishery. In this fishery, scientists, locals, and industry are highly-engaged and already involved in a co-management process set forth by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council.

A new, short, and free primer on modern ocean management

Has having to figure out if you want to do management (EBM), integrated coastal zone management (ICZM), area based management (ABM), whole domain management (WDM), or marine spatial planning (MSP) got you down?

You are in luck. A paper recently published in MarXiv for policy makers, managers, and students provides a short history of ocean management, its conceptual foundations, modern frameworks for it, and numerous real world examples of how these concepts and frameworks are being applied.

Journal paywalls impede scientific information from being used for ocean management

This study of MPA management plans in three countries found that primary scientific research from journals represented just 14% of the information cited in the plans. A main reason for this shortfall was that most journal articles were behind paywalls, where managers had no access to them. This study was the first to document the impediment that journal paywalls present to marine management and to effective application of science for conservation.