Summaries

Every week, the MarXiv Team selects papers shared in the MarXiv repository to summarize for managers and policymakers. Share your research in MarXiv now and we may summarize your paper, too!

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Women are often overlooked in ocean governance

The authors offer a short review of gendered issues in ocean governance, here defined as "the political, social, economic, and administrative systems and related formal and informal institutional arrangements involved in the management of natural resources."

Aquaculture farms can have many, highly-variable impacts on nearby wildlife

Aquaculture farms have the potential to impact nearby wildlife in a number of ways: an individual study alone would be unable to measure all the impacts. So the authors performed a meta-analysis and review of the scientific literature, examining over 9000 research papers published through November 2017, to determine the consensus on both positive and negative impacts from aquaculture farms.

Determining an acceptable number of cruise ships in a US national park based on incidents of ship-strikes with whales

While national parks in the US are intended to conserve natural resources for the public to enjoy, those visitors can negatively impact resources: vehicles may collide with and kill wildlife; traffic can contribute to noise, water, and air pollution; human waste must be removed, etc. When these impacts are sufficiently large to threaten the sustainability of the resource, mangers should curtail the activities because it runs counter to the conservation mandate. However, when these impacts are smaller, managers must decide the impact level at which to curtail visitor volume or activities, which runs counter to the visitation mandate. The authors use the example of cruise-ship strikes with humpback whales in Glacier Bay National Park as a case study for this type of use-impact trade-off and the difficult decisions it creates.

In some situations, simpler models can produce better forecasts

Big data is in fashion these days, especially for modelling ecosystems in ocean science. But how much data do you really need? And does adding more data, and building more complex models, actually give you better results? To find out, the authors used the case of kelp forests on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Their results show how, depending on the objective, simpler models can actually be better.

Determining historical distribution patterns of fur seals to aid management efforts in the Southern Ocean

Determining how species distributions have changed due to human activity can be difficult without robust historical records. In the absence of such data, species distribution models can be used to predict where a species might have lived based on the environmental variables that support the species. The authors used satellite data of the Southern Ocean to predict the historical distribution patterns of Antarctic fur seals within the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) to aid management efforts in the region.

Environmental stewardship contributes more to the Massachusetts economy than whale watching, fin-fish fisheries

Commercial fishery interests and other extractive industries typically dominate discussions for environmental decision-making for the oceans and coasts. These industries can claim millions of dollars in benefits to local communities by simply adding up their sales. But there are lots of other coastal activities with less visible economic impacts. How can the economic benefits of marine stewardship and conservation activities be estimated? The authors used donations to coastal and marine civil society organizations, and volunteer efforts, to provide a conservative estimate the economic benefits provided to the state.

Lessons from fisheries industry-led data collection efforts in the UK

With many fisheries management organizations operating with lean budgets, finding funding to collect necessary data on how to properly manage fisheries can be difficult; let alone fill gaps in existing data collection efforts. In some instances in the UK, fishers have begun data collection projects of their own. To understand the reasoning behind and effectiveness of these projects, the authors investigated case studies engaging commercial fisheries with industry-led data collection efforts to supplement existing data sources.

Fewer young people are joining small-scale fishery co-ops in Chile

Chile is known for important work on their Territorial User Rights Fishery (TURF). Back in the 90s, the government enacted policies to give small-scale fishers more control over fisheries management. To participate in the TURF system, fishers join licensed fishery associations called caletas. Children of TURF members typically join the same caletas as their family. However, this is starting to change as fewer young people follow in their parents’ footsteps.

Perception is everything: how people see ecosystem services can guide management and modeling efforts

People's perceptions of the world around them can be quite different from reality. Other times, perceptions may be the only source of information if robust scientific data collection has not occured. Knowing what people perceive about their environment can be a useful tool for managers: one could determine where restoration efforts need to be focused, or if more communication and outreach efforts are needed to correct misinformation.

In data-limited situations, stakeholder advice can help shore-up your conservation solutions

In areas without robust surveys of species distributions, proxies are often used to estimate where marine flora and fauna reside. The authors tested a number of environmental proxies to see how well they could be used to predict both the distribution and abundance of species, using the Solitary Islands Marine Park in south-eastern Australia as a case study. Merging the outputs from both species- and habitat-oriented models with stakeholder advice is likely the best bet for planning conservation actions in data-limited situations.